AUTHOR OF THE WEEK
MARCH I WEEK, 2011
MULK RAJ ANAND
Born: December 12, 1905
Died: September 28, 2004
Achievement: Mulk Raj Anand was among the first writers to incorporate Punjabi and Hindustani idioms into English.
Mulk Raj Anand was an Indian novelist, short-story writer. He was among the first writers to incorporate Punjabi and Hindustani idioms into English. Mulk Raj Anand’s stories depicted a realistic and sympathetic portrait of the poor in India.
Mulk Raj Anand was born on December 12, 1905 in Peshawar. He graduated with honors from Khalsa College, Amritsar in 1924. Mulk Raj Anand went to England and studied at University College London and Cambridge University. He completed his PhD in 1929. Mulk Raj Anand also studied – and later lectured – at League of Nations School of Intellectual Cooperation in Geneva. Between 1932 and 1945 he lectured intermittently at Workes Educational Association in London.
Mulk Raj Anand was initiated into the literary career by a family tragedy, instigated by the rigidity of the caste system. Anand’s first prose essay was a response to the suicide of an aunt, who had been excommunicated by his family for sharing a meal with a Muslim. Mulk Raj Anand’s first novel, “Untouchable”, (1935), was a stark reflection of the day-to-day life of a member of India’s untouchable caste. The book was widely acclaimed and Mulk Raj Anand was hailed as India’s Charles Dickens. His second novel “Coolie” depicts the plight of India’s poor through the story of a 15-year-old boy, trapped in servitude as a child labourer, who eventually dies of tuberculosis.
In the 1930s and 1940s Mulk Raj Anand divided his time between London and India. He joined the struggle for independence, but also fought with the Republicans in the Spanish Civil War. After the war Anand returned permanently to India and settled in Bombay. In 1946 he founded the fine-arts magazine Marg. He also became a director of Kutub Publishers. From 1948 to 1966 Anand taught at Indian universities. Mulk Raj Anand was fine art chairman at Lalit Kala Akademi (National Academy of Arts from 1965 to 1970. In 1970, he became president of Lokayata Trust, for creating a community and cultural center in the village of Hauz Khas, New Delhi.
Mulk Raj Anand died on September 28, 2004.
Nationality: Indian. Born: Peshawar, 1905. Education: Khalsa College, Amritsar; Punjab University, 1921-24, B.A. (honours) 1924; University College, University of London, 1926-29, Ph.D.; Cambridge University, 1929-30; League of Nations School of Intellectual Cooperation, Geneva, 1930-32. Career: Lecturer, School of Intellectual Cooperation, Summer 1930, and Workers Educational Association, London, intermittently 1932-45; has also taught at the universities of Punjab, Benares, and Rajasthan, Jaipur, 1948-66; Tagore Professor of Literature and Fine Art, University of Punjab, 1963-66; Visiting Professor, Institute of Advanced Studies, Simla, 1967-68. Fine Art Chairman, Lalit Kala Akademi (National Academy of Art), New Delhi, 1965-70. Since 1946 editor, Marg magazine, Bombay: editor and contributor, Marg Encyclopedia of Art, 136 vols., 1948-81; since 1946 director, Kutub Publishers, Bombay. Since 1970 President of the Lokayata Trust, for creating a community and cultural centre in Hauz Khas village, New Delhi. Awards: Leverhulme fellowship, 1940-42; World Peace Council prize, 1952; Padma Bhushan, India, 1968; Akademi prize, for Morning Face, 1970; Sahitya Academy award, 1974; Birla award; distinguished writer award, State Goverment of Maharashtra, India. D. Litt: University of Delhi, University of Patiala, University of Andhra, University of Benaras, and University of Kanpur. Fellow, Indian Academy of Letters.
Untouchable. London, Wishart, 1935; New York, New York LibertyPress, n.d.; revised edition, London, Bodley Head, 1970.
The Coolie. London, Lawrence and Wishart, 1936; as Coolie, London, Penguin, 1945; New York, Liberty Press, 1952; revised edition, London, Bodley Head, 1972.
Two Leaves and a Bud. London, Lawrence and Wishart, 1937; NewYork, Liberty Press, 1954.
The Village. London, Cape, 1939.
Lament on the Death of a Master of Arts. Lucknow, Naya Sansar, 1939.
Across the Black Waters. London, Cape, 1940.
The Sword and the Sickle. London, Cape, 1942.
The Big Heart. London, Hutchinson, 1945; revised edition, edited bySaros Cowasjee, New Delhi, Arnold-Heinemann, 1980.
Private Life of an Indian Prince. London, Hutchinson, 1949; revised edition, London, Bodley Head, 1970.
Seven Summers: The Story of an Indian Childhood. London, Hutchinson, 1951.
The Old Woman and the Cow. Bombay, Kutub, 1960; as Gauri, NewDelhi, Orient, 1976; Liverpool, Lucas, 1987.
The Road. Bombay, Kutub, 1961; London, Oriental University Press, 1987.
Death of a Hero. Bombay, Kutub, 1963.
Morning Face. Bombay, Kutub, 1968; Liverpool, Lucas, and EastBrunswick, New Jersey, Books from India, 1986.
Confession of a Lover. New Delhi, Arnold-Heinemann, 1976; Liverpool, Lucas, 1988.
The Bubble. New Delhi, Arnold-Heinemann, 1987; Liverpool, Lucas, 1988.
The Lost Child and Other Stories. London, J.A. Allen, 1934.
The Barber’s Trade Union and Other Stories. London, Cape, 1944.
The Tractor and the Corn Goddess and Other Stories. Bombay, Thacker, 1947.
Reflections on the Golden Bed. Bombay, Current Book House, 1947.
The Power of Darkness and Other Stories. Bombay, Jaico, 1958.
Lajwanti and Other Stories. Bombay, Jaico, 1966.
Between Tears and Laughter. New Delhi, Sterling, 1973.
Selected Short Stories of Mulk Raj Anand, edited by M.K. Naik. NewDelhi, Arnold-Heinemann, 1977.
Tales Told by an Idiot: Selected Short Stories. Mumbai, JaicoPublishing House, 1999.
India Speaks (produced London, 1943).
Persian Painting. London, Faber, 1930.
Curries and Other Indian Dishes. London, Harmsworth, 1932.
The Golden Breath: Studies in Five Poets of the New India. London, Murray, and New York, Dutton, 1933.
The Hindu View of Art. Bombay, Asia Publishing House, and London, Allen and Unwin, 1933; revised edition, Asia Publishing House, 1957.
Letters on India. London, Routledge, 1942.
Apology for Heroism: An Essay in Search of Faith. London, Drummond, 1946.
Homage to Tagore. Lahore, Sangam, 1946.
Indian Fairy Tales: Retold (for children). Bombay, Kutub, 1946.
On Education. Bombay, Hind Kitabs, 1947.
The Bride’s Book of Beauty, with Krishna Hutheesing. Bombay, Kutub, 1947; as The Book of Indian Beauty, Rutland, Vermont, Tuttle, 1981.
The Story of India (for children). Bombay, Kutub, 1948.
The King-Emperor’s English; or, The Role of the English Language in the Free India. Bombay, Hind Kitabs, 1948.
Lines Written to an Indian Air: Essays. Bombay, Nalanda, 1949.
The Indian Theatre. London, Dobson, 1950; New York, Roy, 1951.
The Story of Man (for children). New Delhi, Sikh Publishing House, 1952.
The Dancing Foot. New Delhi, Ministry of Information, 1957.
Kama Kala: Some Notes on the Philosophical Basis of Hindu Erotic Sculpture. London, Skilton, 1958; New York, Lyle Stuart, 1962.
India in Colour. Bombay, Taraporevala, London, Thames and Hudson, and New York, McGraw Hill, 1959.
More Indian Fairy Tales (for children). Bombay, Kutub, 1961.
Is There a Contemporary Indian Civilisation? Bombay, Asia Publishing House, 1963.
The Story of Chacha Nehru (for children). New Delhi, Rajpal, 1965.
The Third Eye: A Lecture on the Appreciation of Art. Patiala, University of Punjab, 1966.
The Humanism of M.K. Gandhi: Three Lectures. Chandigarh, University of Panjab, 1967(?).
The Volcano: Some Comments on the Development of Rabindranath Tagore’s Aesthetic Theories. Baroda, Maharaja Sayajirao University, 1968.
Roots and Flowers: Two Lectures on the Metamorphosis of Technique and Content in the Indian-English Novel. Dharwar, Karnatak University, 1972.
Mora. New Delhi, National Book Trust, 1972.
Author to Critic: The Letters of Mulk Raj Anand, edited by SarosCowasjee. Calcutta, Writers Workshop, 1973.
Album of Indian Paintings. New Delhi, National Book Trust, 1973.
Folk Tales of Punjab. New Delhi, Sterling, 1974.
Seven Little-Known Birds of the Inner Eye. Rutland, Vermont, Tuttle, 1978.
The Humanism of Jawaharlal Nehru. Calcutta, Visva-Bharati, 1978.
The Humanism of Rabindranath Tagore. Aurangabad, MarathwadaUniversity, 1979.
Maya of Mohenjo-Daro (for children). New Delhi, Children’s BookTrust, n.d.
Conversations in Bloomsbury (reminiscences). New Delhi, Arnold-Heinemann, and London, Wildwood House, 1981.
Madhubani Painting. New Delhi, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, 1984; Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1995.
Pilpali Sahab: Story of a Childhood under the Raj (autobiography).New Delhi, Arnold-Heinemann, 1985.
Poet-Painter: Paintings by Rabindranath Tagore. New Delhi, Abhinav, 1985.
Homage to Jamnalal Bajaj: A Pictorial Biography. Ahmedabad, Allied, 1988.
Amrita Sher Gill: An Essay in Interpretation. New Delhi, NationalGallery of Modern Art, 1989.
Kama Yoga. New Delhi, Arnold, and Edinburgh, Aspect, n.d.
Chitralakshana (on Indian painting). New Delhi, National BookTrust, n.d.
Afterword, The Panorama of Jaipur Paintings by Rita Pratap. NewDelhi, D. K. Printworld, 1996.
Afterword, Price of Partition: Recollections and Reflections by RafiqZakaria. Mumbai, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 1998.
Afterword, V. K. Krishna Menon: A Biography by K. C. Arora. NewDelhi, Sanchar Publishing House, 1998.
Editor, Marx and Engels on India. Allahabad, Socialist Book Club, 1933.
Editor, with Iqbal Singh, Indian Short Stories. London, New India, 1947.
Editor, Introduction to Indian Art, by A.K. Coomaraswamy. Madras, Theosophical Publishing House, and Wheaton, Illinois, Theosophical Press, 1956.
Editor, Experiments: Contemporary Indian Short Stories. Agra, Kranchalson, 1968.
Editor, Annals of Childhood. Agra, Kranchalson, 1968.
Editor, Grassroots. Agra, Kranchalson, 1968(?).
Editor, Tales from Tolstoy. New Delhi, Arnold-Heinemann, 1978.
Editor, with Lance Dane, Kama Sutra of Vatsyayana (from translation by Sir Richard Burton and F.F. Arbuthnot). New Delhi, Arnold-Heinemann, and Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey, Humanities Press, 1982.
Editor, with S. Balu Rao, Panorama: An Anthology of Modern Indian Short Stories. New Delhi, Sterling, 1986; London, Oriental University Press, 1987.
Editor, Chacha Nehru. New Delhi, Sterling, 1987.
Editor, Aesop’s Fables. New Delhi, Sterling, 1987.
Editor, The Historic Trial of Mahatma Gandhi. New Delhi, NationalCouncil of Educational Research and Training, 1987.
Editor, The Other Side of the Medal, by Edward Thompson. NewDelhi, Sterling, 1989.
Editor, Sati: A Writeup of Raja Ram Mohan Roy about Burning of Widows Alive. New Delhi, B.R. Publishing, 1989.
Editor, Splendors of Himachal Heritage. New Delhi, Abhinav Publications, 1997.